Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Simple Exercise in Oil Color: Oil Painting the Profile of a Dog’s Head

This simple oil painting exercise in how to paint a dog’s head has been taken from my art instruction book, 10 Bite-Sized Oil Painting Projects: Book 3, (also included within my bundle art book: 30 Bite-Sized Oil Painting Projects). Each describes oil painting projects for the artist simply wishing to have a go at oils without having to pore over photos hoping to find inspiration.

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Here, we can see this dog’s profile displays flat areas of white and russet, ideal for practicing how to paint sleek fur without intricate detail. Highlights and shadow exists side by side, suggesting softness. The arrows in image B represent the directions of the brushstrokes used. An abridged step by step demonstration on this dog painting begins with the drawing.

Image A shows the dog’s head can fit within basic shapes such as a triangle and rectangle, ideal for calculating the outlines. The sketch was conducted upon primed board 10 by 12in. The only other requirements were fine, medium and wide sables, blue and brown acrylic paint and oil colors: titanium white, burnt sienna, ultramarine blue, cadmium yellow and burnt umber. A YouTube clip on how this demonstration was completed can be found at the bottom of this article.

Drawing and Painting a Dog's Head
1 The dog sketch was lightly conducted via a soft pencil onto the artboard and then overlaid with blue acrylic paint, to help the drawing stand out beneath the ensuing wash.

2 Once the drawing was dry, I applied a dilute wash of brown acrylic paint over the art surface by use of a wide brush.

3 Once the wash was dry, I applied a few more coats of brown acrylic paint over the background, for an even, opaque finish. This will help the highlights of the dog stand out when the oil color is applied.

4 Once the acrylic paint was dry, I began with the oil painting. Cadmium yellow, burnt sienna and mostly white was drawn via a fine sable from the snout towards the ear. These highlights gather around the temple, cheek and the piping around the ear.

5 A dose of burnt sienna was added to the brush and drawn from the edge of the eye and snout towards the ear. Residual paint was then blended into the edges of highlight, retaining brush marks.

6 Highlights were blended into deeper rustic tones to suggest fur. A little burnt umber was then added to reinforce shadows around the underside of the ear and around the eye.

7 More burnt umber was applied to the outlines of the ear, back of the head and around the eye. This adds definition.

8 With a clean, medium sable, titanium white was dragged into the direction of the furs’ growth. The white was then ‘scumbled’ around the snout and sections of the dog’s neck.

9 Ultramarine and a little burnt sienna were added to achieve a slate blue. This shadow color was worked over the underside of the neck. Lighter strokes enabled the blending of shadow colors into pales.

10 Ultramarine, white and a little burnt umber were tracked around the rim of the eye to add definition. Burnt umber and ultramarine was then tracked around the dark outer edges. The iris comprised pure burnt sienna, darkened with ultramarine for the pupil. A dab of blue-white just above the pupil and around the snout suggests moisture.

11 A blend of burnt umber, ultramarine and white illustrated the nose and mouth. Notice the nose is almost triangular in form and the mouth exhibits a soft ridge. Strands of pale fur traverse this ridge, moustache-like. A little white was dragged over in places.

The finished painting
12 Finally, I sketched patches of ultramarine and white onto areas of background. The remainder of the background was darkened with burnt umber. Blue and dark brown were blended around the edges for a mottled effect.

As can be seen, painting a dog’s profile can be made simple. Patches of Russet upon white exhibit bold shapes where soft textures reside. Care is needed around the dog’s features, where a little detail can be found.

My YouTube Clip showing how this demonstration was completed.

Further step by step projects can be found within my art book, which includes a flamingo, a daffodil head, a sunset, topiary gardens and more.

My art books

Sunday, 31 July 2016

Draw Better Portraits: Avoid Four Mistakes when Drawing the Face in Three-quarter View

Drawing portraits is one of the most difficult subject matter to tackle, particularly when the face in the three-quarter view. The subject is not in profile, neither is it full frontal. Such a dilemma can cause skewed looking portrait drawings. Here are four mistakes to avoid when drawing portraiture in a three-quarter view.

This demonstration has been taken from my art book, Oil Painting the Angel within Da Vinci’s the Virgin of the Rocks: Unleash the Right Brain to Paint the Three-quarter Portrait View.

Leonardo da Vinci's angel within the Virgin of the Rocks
Here, I have used Leonardo da Vinci’s angel within his masterpiece ‘The Virgin of the Rocks’ as example, which is exhibited within London’s National Gallery. Here, the angel’s face is in three-quarter view, which can be tricky to draw.

Every drawing begins with a rough linear sketch. And unless the drawing is accurate, mistakes can be inherited within the shading and the painting. Here I have used two drawings to demonstrate common pitfalls portraitists can encounter when drawing the portrait in three-quarter view.

Drawing Errors to Avoid in Portrait Drawing

Common pitfalls students encounter within my drawing class are due to forgetting to ‘look’ at the portrait being rendered. Often, the beginner draws what is imagined rather than what is in front. Symbols or an idealized version of the feature is drawn rather than absolute reality. The face is more complex than the simplified view of what is imagined.

These issues can sneak into the drawing in the most subtle of ways, ruining the portrait drawing, even once the basic ‘egg’ template for the head has been rendered. Here are four common mistakes to avoid when drawing the portrait in three-quarter view.

Mistakes in Drawing the Portrait
Image A represents an accurate line drawing.
Image B represents common drawing errors in portraiture.

1 Illustrating the eyes in a simplified or symbolic way, often as almond shapes or a mixture of what is evident and the almond shape. The eyes often take on complex forms which need sensitive observation.
My Painting of the Angel

2 Not paying due attention to the pupils, as these form the focal point of any portrait. The slightest deviation from reality can have a fundamental effect upon the appearance of the portrait drawing. Ensure both pupils are similar in size and that the quantity on show beneath the eyelids is accurate. Too much, and the subject will look startled; too little and the subject will look unduly sleepy.

3 Beware of illustrating both sides of the nose if only one side can be seen. Here, only one nostril can be seen and one nub. Don’t illustrate both nostrils because the left brain ‘knows’ what is there. In three-quarter view, the nose will often take on an abstract form that does not fit what a nose ‘should’ look like. Often problems with the portrait can be down to the nose.

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4 Be careful not to illustrate the Cupid’s bow dead centre of the lips or near the centre, as this will not be the case in the three-quarter view. Also don’t be ‘tricked’ into illustrating a Cupid’s bow if none can be seen. Many subjects do not have a Cupids’ bow.

In conclusion, drawing a face in three-quarter view means dispelling all rules about what a face ‘should’ look like. This is because the face is not in profile nor is it in full frontal view. Facial features will take on odd abstract forms that in isolation do not really resemble a facial feature at all. The secret is to constantly be aware of how one feature ‘relates’ to another.

Sunday, 10 July 2016

The Croquis Template for Fashion Illustrators

How to Draw the Fashion Figure for Dress Design Illustration

A guide on how to sketch the fashion form for those who wish to present their dress designs in a portfolio.

Having fantastic ideas for dress designs is no good if the artist fails to come to grips with the proportions of the fashion figure. With such guesswork, the fashion design sketch is unlikely to impress.

The Fashion Croquis

The Beginners Guide to Drawing the Fashion Form

The idealized figure, upon which, fashion illustrators drape their dress designs on, is also known as a “croquis.” The word “croquis” comes from the French word, meaning, “to sketch.”

Drawing the Idealized Human Form Made Simple

The croquis is a means of communicating fashion concepts via an idealized fashion form. This form, which can be made into male or female, measures nine to ten heads high. A normal human, measures seven to eight heads high. The legs are elongated for effect, but the proportions between the head and crotch, retains realism with the human form.

How to Sketch the Fashion Form Step-by-step

Fashion Croquis Skeleton
The proportions of the fashion figure are easy to remember and the instructions easy to follow, but practice will make perfect.

Draw a straight line for the central axis of the figure.
Divide the line into nine equal segments.
Number each line from one to ten. See Fig.

The Croquis Head and Torso

Draw an inverted egg shape for the head within the top segment.
Draw the shoulder line halfway between lines two and three.
Make the shoulder line two head lengths wide and center it on the axis.

The Lower Abdomen and Crotch

For the waist, draw a line at line fours.
Make the waist one head length wide and center it on the axis.
Form an inverted triangle by bringing it to just below line five.

The Arms

Drape the upper arms (shoulder to elbow) from shoulder to waist.
Bring the lower arms (elbow to wrist) from the waist to the crotch.
The hands are three-quarters the head in length. Attach to the wrists so that they drape half way down the thigh.

The Legs and Feet

Bring each leg from the edge of the lower triangle to line ten.
The knees should be at line seven.
The feet should be half a head in length as viewed from the front.

Fleshing out the Fashion Figure

Adding the curvy contours around the skeleton of the fashion form requires a little practice. Studying fashion figures in magazines with improve the drawing technique. This will help acquire a feel for this final process.

Masculinity can be suggested by slightly broader shoulders and a little narrowing of the hips. The facial features will be more angular than the female features. Facial features should remain simplistic and suggestive, but could provide a signature to the individual artist.

Postures of the Fashion Form Sketch

Arms and legs can be pivoted to suggest different postures, and the proportions will be retained, for example, standing legs akimbo, or legs apart. The angle of the shoulders and the hips can be angled to suggest jauntiness. However, the proportions will not apply if there is any foreshortening effect, for example if any of the limbs are pointing towards or away from the viewer.

The Perfect Fashion Design Figure for Dress Designs

The croquis is an idealized version of the human figure that is not a realistic version of the human form. The exaggerated proportions serve as a suitable blank canvas onto which a fashion illustrator may demonstrate their fashion concepts. Becoming familiar with the proportions and in drawing the fashion form, the designer will enhance the appearance of their portfolio and increase their chances of being commissioned within the fashion industry.

Thursday, 23 June 2016

Dropout of Art School Prevention: NEET Risk Factor in Further Education Art Students

Studying for an art diploma, degree or A level can be as stressful as any other subject, despite first impressions. Art students have to possess more autonomy than students of other prescriptive subjects such as History or English Literature.

A Degree in Fine Art, Graphics or similar in the Visual Arts demands creativity, independence and a knack for inspiration. With little guidance from teachers or lecturers, art students are expected to come up with the goods. This can be quite a shock after following a structured curriculum at school. Art is not an easy option and in fact sees a high risk of dropouts compared to other subjects.

Exclusion from Art Education

But just like other subjects, the reason for dropping out of art school needs to be explored, which must begin with the basics.

Art students’ behavior might be governed by unresolved conflicts during childhood, leading to emotional and behavioral dysfunction. Such issues often become a barrier to learning but can also be used as a means for expression within the context of creativity. Many great artists centered their works upon emotional dysfunction such as Francis Bacon and Vincent Van Gough. The German Expressionists explored mark-making and color in order to convey a particular mood, such as Kandinsky and Miro.

Keeping Art Objectives Simple and Achievable

However, negative experiences will often kill inspiration, leading to a drop off of productivity. Lack of motivation can be the biggest killer of creativity of all.

What Does NEET Mean?

NEET stands for Not in Education, Employment or Training. This happens when a student drops out of university or college and becomes excluded from society. During my term at Art University, I saw many art students drop out of studies, only to find it hard to get a job or to embark upon another course. This can be soul destroying.

Becoming NEET is more likely in certain individuals than others, including:

Students from broken homes, negative parenting styles and drug abuse. Furthermore, males more than females are likely to drop out, as well as those from minority groups or has a special need in learning.

Those who fall under the under the 18 age-group may call upon The Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS), which is part of Special Education Needs (SEN). ChildLine can also be called upon for emotional support. Every college or university must have a dedicated counsellor to help resolve problems. Sadly however, many vulnerable art students slip through the net.

So what can the art teacher do to prevent art students from dropping out?

Every Child Matters has put in place strategies the teacher may use to preserve student attendance in art class. However, in my teaching experience, I have found the following guidelines apply also to adults.

1 Place emphasis upon effort rather than merely achievement.
2 Practice good listening skills. Demonstrate the student’s views are important.
3 Give the art student responsibility.
4 Observe body language and tone of voice. These convey more than the words spoken. Practice open and positive gestures.
5 Praise. This is most important.

Praising Student's Progress
Differentiation is also vital. The student must experience success. This means tailoring aims and objectives that suit the student. Low motivation stems from low confidence. Ensure objectives comprise small increments that are always achievable. Simply making a few marks on a page can be a great achievement for a student who has suffered lifelong criticism.

Confidentiality in Art Class

If the student discloses of a personal difficulty that could become a barrier to learning, the teacher can advise and refer to the appropriate agent. But it is up to the student to follow up this advice.

A student under 18 who opens up about child abuse means the teacher must inform the Child Protection Officer (CPO). This means the teacher cannot promise confidentiality. Records must be logged with dates and signatures.

Lack of Art Student Graduates

The prospect of becoming NEET must be avoided at all costs, or the student will become more vulnerable. In my experience, retaining a routine of going to college and keeping up to date with deadlines formed a safety net against becoming a drop out. The dropout of art school is likely to exacerbate a downward spiral of self esteem.

Wednesday, 22 June 2016

The Color Wheel in Art Books is Sometimes Wrong: Myths of Art Pigments Dispelled

Art students may be frustrated when muddy colors result from a box of pigments purchased from an art shop. Often the true primary colors are not included, and worse, the color wheel shown in some art instruction books is not correct.

Not every red, yellow and blue produces a clean violet, orange or green. In fact the mixture can be muddy and dull. The reason for this problem is simple: the true primary colors are often not displayed in certain artbooks nor are they included in a typical beginners box of art pigments.

The Color Wheel Myth

Not any blue pigment is a primary color, and often contains other pigments in small amounts. Ultramarine, for instance, is a vibrant blue, but contains a lot of red, as this blue has a violet slant. Cadmium red is a vibrant red, but actually contains a lot of yellow. The true primary colors are in fact those that resemble the pigments of printing ink, which are magenta, yellow and cyan. Art colors that resemble the pigments of printing ink would create clean secondary colors.

Useless Pigments in Art Boxes

Although the following pigments are useful, can actually be surplus to requirement when one considers that they can be achieved by the mixture of other pigments. However, the true primary colors cannot be attained by mixing two other colors.

So the non-essential pigments are:

Yellow ochre, sap green, cadmium orange, Prussian blue, raw sienna, raw umber, flesh tone, Naples yellow and others. These pigments contain various amounts of opposing pigments, which means they contain a lot of impurities.

However, the following pigments should be included in every beginner’s art set of pigments:

A large tube of titanium white (not a tube the same size as the other pigments).
Lemon yellow, permanent rose and cyan blue (or Pthalo blue). These pigments are quite close to the appearance of the fundamental hues of printing ink.

Essential secondary colors that I would include are: viridian green, French ultramarine and cadmium red. Vibrant pigments can easily be toned down by the inclusion of opposing colors (for example, blue can be toned down with a little red and yellow or an earth color). But somber colors cannot be made more ‘vibrant’ unless these bright pigments are included within the artist’s kit.

In other words, somber colors are not as vital as vibrant colors. A mixture of vibrant colors can create somber colors, but a boxful of somber pigments cannot create a vibrant color. Such restrictions upon the artist can be frustrating.

My YouTube Clip Explaining the Basics of Color Mixing

Beginners’ Art Pigments

So let’s look at the common terminology used when mixing pigments.

Primary Color: is one that cannot be made from other color mixtures. The primary colors of paint are those that resemble magenta, cyan and yellow of printing ink.
Secondary Color: is produced by mixing 2 primary colors. These are violet, green and red (not orange).
Tertiary Color: is achieved by mixing a primary and a secondary color. Mixing red with yellow will create orange. Green and yellow will produce yellowy-green.
Black is created by mixing all three primary colors in similar quantities.

Bright colors: Courtesy of Joseph Busby

Color Mixing Chart for Beginners

Understanding the basic laws of color will result in more satisfactory color mixes. Look for art boxes that contain clean, vibrant colors, not an array of earth colors and black. Pigments that resemble the fundamental colors of printing ink will produce many clean secondary colors. I find lemon yellow, permanent rose and cyan blue (pthalo blue is a darker version) quite close to the mark.

Vibrant secondary colors such as viridian green, French ultramarine and cadmium red will also come in handy.

Tuesday, 15 December 2015

Why do My Drawings Look Childish? Answer: Your Left Brain is Ruining Your Drawing

During my term teaching life drawing, I came across students who struggled to draw. These were adult students who had plucked the courage to begin drawing after bringing up children or pursuing a career. Others were young adults who had yet to move on from cartoonish drawings that are highly stylized. This is often a disguise for frustration at capturing what is really in front.

So why so some intelligent adults who have great skills or talents in other sectors find it hard to draw?

Shut Up Left Brain!

Hemispheres of the brain
The answer lies in how the brain is wired, causing a sort of picture dyslexia. Our brains are split into two hemispheres, the left and the right. The left hemisphere is where the speech centre is located, and therefore is verbal, bossy, labels things and edits the world to make it make sense. The right hemisphere is silent, has great spatial awareness and sees things how they really are.

Hemispheres of the Brain and Drawing Ability

Skewed ellipses
Ever noticed how hard it is to draw whilst having a conversation? This is because the speech centre in the left brain is being engaged, but it is the right brain that possesses drawing ability. Drawing whilst talking is like juggling several balls at once. This is not desirable for drawing.

The right brain does not label things, but sees the world as it really is. It has good spatial and visual awareness. In order to draw well, the left hemisphere needs to be subdued and the right brain promoted.

This means to stop seeing the world with ‘objects’ with labels, such as, ‘this is how a how a house looks. It has windows, a door, a roof and a chimney.’ From some angles, none of these might be visible. Some houses look odd from certain vantage points. Photographs will testify, yet our left brains insists upon making things make sense.

Signs the left brain is interfering with the right brain whilst drawing might some or all of the examples:
  • Limbs on figures are too thin and/or short. Similarly, hands and feet too small.
  • Eyes on portraits are too far up the head.
  • Skulls of human profiles are too shallow.
  • Angles on buildings recede at impossible angles in foreshortening.
  • Ellipses on objects are wonky or skewed.
  • Impossible vanishing points in streets.
  • In general, the drawing might appear lob-sided squashed up or just plain wrong, for no identifiable reason.

Drawing is cornerstone to painting
You see, the left brain edits the world. Facial features are perceived as more important than the spaces between, such as the forehead or the depth of the skull, so these are rendered smaller than they actually are. The same applies to hands and feet, as they are noticed less than the other features of the body.

And so it can be seen that those who struggle to draw are experiencing a dilemma between the two brains. They see the world in different ways. Betty Edwards’ book, ‘Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain’, as well my book ‘Draw What You See Not What You Think You See’ explores this dilemma in full.

For now, be assured that a lack of drawing ability is simply due to a lack of brain training. This means recognizing when the pesky left brain is ruining your drawing.

Tips for Improving Drawing

Try the following exercises, designed to forestall the left brain. These will subdue your left brain and encourage your right brain to come through.

During the drawing process, turn your drawing upside down now and again. This will cut off the left brain’s familiar view of the world, and render your drawing into a series of lines and contours that are less familiar. You may notice skewed angles, wonky lines and accuracy issues.

View your drawing through a mirror. In similar fashion to viewing it upside down, this will create an unfamiliar view of your drawing.

Get some distance. Yes, get out of your chair and look at your drawing from afar. Your right brain sees things as a whole rather than in its parts. Getting a distant view means mistakes can more easily be spotted, as it will be seen in context of the rest of the drawing.

Leave the room for two minutes. Not looking at the drawing for a few minutes will have the effect of rebooting the brain and gaining a fresh view. You can also leave the room periodically during drawing to improve your visual memory.

Remember to keep looking at the objects in front whilst drawing. Often, I have seen my students sit close to their drawings without even looking at the subject matter. They are more concerned with polishing off the shading or straightening a line. Disappointment awaits once they stand back and realize their perfectly-fashioned drawings are inaccurate.

Handedness and Drawing Ability

I personally don’t believe that handedness has any relevance to drawing ability. This is to quash the pervading belief that left handed people are better drawers than right. I don’t find this to be true, although creativity and style are a separate matter.

Right handed people can be as good at drawing as left handed people, as drawing entails good hand to eye coordination and accuracy. Having said this, I have noticed that people who have ambidextrous tendencies, i.e., those who have low lateralization in a preference for which side of the body they use to perform tasks (brushing hair, kicking a ball, etc..) experience difficulty with drawing. Low lateralization also seems to come in tandem with poor coordination, incidences of dyslexia and directional difficulties. After research, I have also found higher frequency of drawing difficulties within people who have low lateralization.

More Articles on Drawing Exercises

Thursday, 10 December 2015

Why Artists Cannot Mix Any Color from Artist Starter Kits: Missing Vital Colors and Useless Pigments

My students often lament that they cannot mix any color they want from a so-called artist kit of pigments brought from the art shop. It is little wonder when I see the range of colors supplied. More often than not, you will find a ‘red’, ‘yellow’ and a ‘blue’ of some sort. You will also find a brown or a range of browns, a black, a green and (incredibly the same tube size as the other colors of) titanium white.

Overrated Pigments in Artist Kits

Art Kits with Redundant Pigments
It is little wonder that the beginner in oil painting or acrylics cannot mix the colors desired. This is because, for starters, the misconception of what a primary color is. You see, it is believed that any color can be mixed by the inclusion of red, yellow and blue in the kit. But some reds, yellows and blues are not primary colors. Cadmium red is not a primary color because it contains a lot of yellow. Thin this pigment down and you will see a slightly yellowish tinge in the wash. A clean purple cannot be achieved by including cadmium red in a red/blue mix. Similarly, ultramarine is not a primary blue as it contains a lot of red, bringing a violet hue. Therefore clean greens will not be possible by including this color.

An artist kit is only as good as the vibrancy of secondary colors it can bring. These are violet, green and red (orange is in fact a tertiary color). Overly bright secondary colors can always be muted down by adding brown or an opposing color, cannot be made more ‘bright’. The primary colors are cyan, yellow and magenta, not any red, yellow or blue.

Why Black Pigment is not Vital

Another problem is black. I say black, because I do not understand why black is included at all, except for a monochrome project. Black can be achieved by mixing any red, yellow and blue and is seldom needed in everyday art. And why would black be added to any color, except to create unconvincing shadows or to dirty a color.

The same applies to ‘yellow ochre’ and ‘sap green’. Because of their association with the old masters, modern artists believe these pigments to be vital to any pigment selection. I personally find them useless and dirty.

We Need More White Pigment in Artist Kits

And finally, the most important pigment of all: titanium white. Why do these artist kits include white of the same tube size as the other pigments? Colors can be darkened by adding its complimentary color (the opposite color, for example by adding violet to yellow). But a color cannot be lightened without white. Lightening a color forms a fundamental part of color mixing. And yet the artist kit often contains the same tube size of white as the other colors.

Below find my evaluation of the pigment choices found within the artist paint kit:

Daler Rowney Graduate Oil Selection Set.
Within you will find: lemon yellow, cadmium red (hue), crimson, ultramarine, sap green, yellow ochre, burnt sienna, burnt umber, ivory black and titanium white.

Issues: There is no primary red. Both cadmium red and crimson contain yellow to some degree. Sap green, ivory black and yellow ochre are not needed – unless you want to mix dirty colors. The tube of white is the same size as the other pigments.

Daler Rowney Georgian Oil Color Introduction Set
Within you will find: lemon yellow, cadmium yellow hue, yellow ochre, burnt sienna, cadmium red hue, alizarin crimson, French ultramarine, sap green, lamp black and titanium white.

Issues: Yellow ochre, sap green and lamp black are not needed unless you like dirty colors. There is no primary blue, so mixing a clean green will be virtually impossible. The tube of white is the same size as the other colors.

Winsor and Newton Watermixable oil colors set of 10
Within you will find: lemon yellow, cadmium yellow, cadmium red (deep), alizarin crimson, ultramarine, cerulean blue, pthalo green, yellow ochre, burnt umber, titanium white.

Issues: Yellow ochre. It is not needed. Titanium white is the same tube size as the other pigments. Mixing a clean violet may be tricky, as cadmium red (deep) is the closest approximation to a primary red. Other than that, the pigment is not too bad compared to the artist kits.

Winton’s Oil Color Paint Starter Set Ten
Within you will find: cadmium yellow pale hue, cadmium red deep hue, French ultramarine, phthalo blue, viridian hue, permanent green light, yellow ochre, burnt sienna, ivory black and titanium white.

Issues: Permanent green light, yellow ochre and ivory black are not needed. With such as limited choice of colors, every pigment should be made to count. Titanium white is the same size tube as the other pigments. Secondary colors will be possible but not the cleanest, most vibrant sort. Quite a few colors here will remain relatively unused.

Winton’s Watermixable Artisan Starter Kit of 6
Within you will find: permanent alizarin crimson, cadmium yellow, phthalo green-blue shade, French ultramarine, yellow ochre and titanium white.

Issues: yellow ochre is not a vital pigment, unless dirty colors are the aim. Titanium white is the same size as the other pigments. Other than that, not a bad selection compared to the others.

The Best Artist Selection Kit of Pigments for Beginners

I will often select my own art pigments individually rather than purchase a box of pigments. would recommend lemon yellow, cadmium yellow (pale), cadmium red, permanent rose (quite close to magenta, but don’t buy art tubes labeled ‘magenta’ as this may contain impurities).

Also recommended are ultramarine, pthalo blue (or cerulean). Both have some properties of cyan. Finally, I find burnt sienna and burnt umber creates warm, rich neutrals and darks. And finally, a big tube of titanium white. Luxuries are alizarin crimson (and old favorite) and viridian green. Yes, criticized for its overuse in painting foliage, but it can be tempered with other colors to create lovely greens.

Some pigment manufacturers sell pigments with the word ‘process’ or ‘permanent’ to denote a color close to the true primary color, for instance, ‘permanent blue’ will resemble ‘cyan’ of printing ink, a true primary color.

Mare Articles about Primary Colors and Pigments

Myths of the color wheel
The four states of colour
color temperature and opacity
My science of color site
Advice on buying artbrushes